VOLEYBOL OYUNCULARINDA EN SIK GÖRÜLEN YARALANMALAR VE NEDENLERİ
THE MOST COMMON INJURIES IN VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS AND THEIR CAUSES
Although volleyball is a sport in which contact with the opponent is less than other sports, the rate of musculoskeletal injuries of volleyball players is higher due to explosive power such as spike, spike serve, and repetitive vertical jumps and landings, repetitive movements of the shoulder at a very wide range of motion, excessive use of hip and ankle mobilization and lumbar stabilization. The aim of this review is to analyze and summarize the current literature and to gain a comprehensive perspective on injuries in volleyball. In addition, the most common injuries in volleyball players are to reveal the findings related to their injuries according to the positions they play. In this review, the English articles in PubMed and Google Scholar were searched and focused on the results related to the place of injury, type of injury and frequency of injury, especially in volleyball players. According to the research results; The areas most affected by injuries in volleyball players are respectively; lower extremity, core region and upper extremity. It was revealed that 75.2% of injuries in volleyball players occurred during volleyball training, 20.3% during matches, 4.5% during activities related to strength and conditioning. In order to prevent injury in volleyball training, preventive programs such as stretching, mobilization and strength exercises should be given importance as well as possible identified risk factors. The fact that injuries were detected at a higher rate, especially in the knee and ankle region in volleyball players, shows also the necessity of adequate protective training for the lower extremities.
Keywords: Spike, block, jumping, unilateral, dominant extremity.
Voleybol diğer sporlarına göre rakip ile temasın daha az olduğu bir spor olsa da, voleybol oyuncularının smaç, smaç servis gibi patlayıcı özellikte ve tekrarlayan dikey sıçrama ve yere inişler omuzun çok geniş bir açıda tekrarlayan hareketler yapması, kalça ve ayakbileği mobilizasyonu ve bel stabilizasyonun çok fazla kullanılması nedeniyle kas-iskelet sistemi yaralanma oranı daha fazladır. Bu derlemenin amacı, güncel literatürü analiz ederek, özetlemek ve voleybolda yaralanmalar konusunda kapsamlı bir bakış açısı elde etmektir. Ayrıca voleybol oyuncularında en çok görülen yaralanmalar ile oynadıkları pozisyonlara göre, yaralanmalarına ilişkin bulguları ortaya koymaktır. Bu derlemede PubMed ve Google Scholarda yer alan İngilizce makaleler taranarak özellikle voleybol oyuncularında yaralanma yeri, yaralanma türü ve yaralanma sıklığı ile ilgili sonuçlara odaklanılmıştır. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre; voleybol oyuncularında en çok yaralanmadan etkilenen bölgeler sırasıyla; alt ekstremite, core bölgesi ve üst ekstremitedir. Voleybol oyuncularında yaralanmaların % 75.2’si voleybol antrenmanı sırasında, % 20.3 maçlar sırasında % 4.5 kuvvet ve kondisyon ile ilgili aktiviteler sırasında olduğu ortaya konuldu. Voleybol antrenmanlarında yaralanmanın önlenmesi için olası belirlenen risk faktörlerinin yanı sıra germe, mobilizasyon, direnç egzersizleri gibi koruyucu programlara önem verilmelidir. Voleybol oyuncularında özellikle diz ve ayak bileği bölgesinde yaralanmaların daha fazla oranda saptanmış olması alt ekstremiteye yönelik koruyucu çalışmaların yeterince yapılması gerekliliğini de göstermektedir.
Anahtar Terimler: Smaç, blok, sıçrama, tek yönlü, dominant ekstremite.
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